Passerines are members of the Passeriformes order, which includes more than half bird species. As a result, this is the order with the most members in the Arctic meaning the following is only a near-exhaustive list of passerine species commonly found in the East Atlantic Arctic. The family list is exhaustive, and for each family a few examples of emblematic species will be presented in detail. Some vagrants and visitors are mentionned, but most are not listed.
Dippers are members of the Cinclus genus, the only genus in the Cinclidae family. They are unique among passerines as they are diving birds that are able to swim. Their live in streams and feed on larvae and other small aquatic prey. The only dipper in the East Atlantic Arctic is the White-throated dipper Cinclus Cinclus, which is easy to recognize with its coloration and short tail. It has an irregular distribution throughout Europe, but is found throughout Fennoscandia, and is a rare vagrant to the Faroe Islands.
Kinglets are the smallest passerines, and they form the Regulus genus in the Regulidae family. They are named for their crowns, that evoke royalty. The only kinglet in the East Atlantic Arctic is the Goldcrest Regulus regulus. Specifically, it is found as a summer breeder in Low Arctic and subarctic Norway and Finland, and as a resident in Iceland. It has been known to breed in the Faroe Islands. The goldcrest is the smallest European bird (5–9.5cm in length, 13.5–15.5cm wingspan, 4.5–7.0g). It can be recognized by its extremely small size and yellow crown surrounded by black bands.
Long-tailed tits, or bushtits, are small birds with long tails from the Aegithalidae family. One member of the family, the Long-tailed tit Aegithalos caudatus, is found in temperate to Low Arctic regions from western Europe to eastern Asia. In the East Atlantic Arctic, it is found on the Norwegian coast. The long-tailed tit is small and round, and the tail accounts for more than half the body length of 13-15cm.
Shrikes are the members of the family of carnivorous passerines Laniidae, which are known for impaling their prey, insects and small mammals, on thorns or other sharp objects. The Great grey shrike Lanius excubitor, is no exception. It is fairly large for a passerine, measuring between 22 and 26cm in length. It is found from northern Africa to northern Europe, all the way to southern and western Asia. In the East Atlantic Arctic, it breeds throughout Fennoscandia except the southernmost regions where it is a winter visitor. It is a rare visitor to Iceland and the Faroe Islands.
Sparrows are small birds in the Passeridae family. The House sparrow Passer domesticus is native to Eurasia and was introduced to all other continents except Antarctica. In the East Atlantic Arctic, it is found throughout Fennoscandia except for the northernmost and mountainous regions. Small breeding colonies are present in the Faroe Islands since introduction in the 1940's, and they are dependent on human settlements. In Iceland, a breeding colony was present until the 2010's, but it has now disappeared and house sparrows have become rare vagrants.
Starlings are the members of the family Sturnidae. Many species have metallic sheens, such as the Common starling Sturnus vulgaris, the only starling species found in the East Atlantic Arctic. It is medium-sized, about 19-23cm in length. The common starling is native to Eurasia, and has been introduced to every other continent except the Antarctic. It is a resident or breeding bird throughout Fennoscandia, and has established a large breeding population in Iceland since the 1940's. The Faroe Islands have their own endemic subspecies, which is common there. It slightly larger than other subspecies.
Treecreepers belong to the Certhiidae family. Only one member of the family is found in the East Atlantic Arctic: the Eurasian treecreeper Certhia familiaris. It is found from northwestern Europe to northeastern Asia, including temperate to Low Arctic Fennoscandia. The Eurasian treecreeper is found in woodlands and is difficult to spot because of it color and small size (about 12.5cm in length).
Larks are the members of the family Alaudidae. Two species are found in the East Atlantic Arctic:
The waxwings are a group of three species that form the Bombycillidae family. They are recognized by their silky, smooth feathers and black eye stripe. The Bohemian waxwing Bombycilla garrulus is a medium-sized waxwing (19-23cm in length) which is found coast to coast in Eurasia and North America. Bohemian waxwings are found breeding in western Fennoscandia, and some winter on Norwegian, Swedish and Finnish coastlines in the South and West of the region. They are fairly common visitors to Iceland and the Faroe Islands. They have been seen almost every year in Svalbard since 2007, usually in late spring, although mortality is high.
The Calcariidae family actually comprises of two different groups (or genus): the longspurs, and the snow buntings. One species of each genus is found in the East Atlantic Arctic, and both species are circumpolar, with similar distributions. They breed in the High Arctic of North America and Eurasia, and winter in temperate to subarctic regions. They are also similar in size (15-17cm in length).
Wrens are the members of the Troglodytidae family, of which only one species is found in Afro-Eurasia: the Eurasian wren Troglodytes troglodytes. This very small bird (9-10cm in length) is found in irregular patches between western Europe, northern Africa, and eastern Asia. It is a summer breeder around Iceland, with many individuals staying all year long. In the Faroe Islands, it a resident with an endemic subspecies, the Faroese wren. In Fennoscandia, it is a resident on the southerwestern coast, and a summer breeder in the rest of region exception the North.
Reed warblers, which form the family Acrocephalidae, are medium to large warblers which usually prefer tall grass or reed habitats, as well as low density or open woodland. Two species of reed warblers can be found in the East Atlantic Arctic.
The corvid family Corvidae includes crows but also ravens, magpies, jays, rooks, nutcrackers, and more. This family contains the largest passerines. Five species are commonly found in the East Atlantic Arctic:
- The Common raven Corvus corax. With lengths between 54 and 67cm, wingspans between 115 and 150cm, and weights of up to 2kg, this corvid shares the title of largest passerine with the African thick-billed raven. It is found through most of the northern Hemisphere, including coastal Greenland, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Fennoscandia. A unique black and white morph of the common raven could be found in the Faroe Islands until the early 1900's when it became extinct. The populations of northern Europe, of Iceland and the Faroe Islands, and of Greenland, belong to three separate subspecies.
- The Eurasian magpie Pica pica. This large passerine (44-46cm in length) is found throughout the temperate to Low Arctic regions of Eurasia, including all of Fennoscandia. Eurasian magpies are vagrants to the Faroe Islands.
- The Hooded crow Corvus cornix, which is distributed throughout Fennoscandia and down to the Middle East. It is also found in the Faroe Islands. It is smaller than the common raven, with lengths of 48cm to 52cm. It can be identified by its ash grey body with a black head, throat, wings, and feet. The hooded crow is a rare vagrant to Iceland, Svalbard, and Greenland.
- The Eurasian jay Garrulus glandarius. Easy to recognize with its pinkish-grey body and blue patch striped with black on the wing, the Eurasian jay is found from Spain to Japan, with a separate population in southeastern Asia. It is found in Sweden, most of Finland, and some parts of Norway. It is large for a passerine, but small for a corvid with lengths of 34-35cm.
- The Siberian jay Perisoreus infaustus. This corvid is the smallest in Europe, with a body-length of about 30cm. It is found in Fennoscandia and Siberia.
Finches are the members of the Fringillidae that have short and wide beaks, perfect for crushing seeds. They are often colorful, especially males. Many species are found in the East Atlantic Arctic, but the most common, and the ones that are known to breed in the Arctic, are listed below.
- The Pine grosbeak Pinicola enucleator. This large finch (20 to 25.5cm in length) can be identified from its size, the shape of its short, wide, conical beak, and colors. Males are rose-red and females have an olive-green head and rump, both with black and white striped wings and black tails. The pine grosbeak is circumpolar, and inhabits almost exclusively the Arctic and Subarctic. It is present throughout Fennoscandia.
- The Common chaffinch Fringilla coelebs. breeds from North Africa, throughout Europe, and to western Siberia. In southern coastal Fennoscandia, common chaffinches are resident, but in the rest of their Fennoscandian range (they are absent from the northernmost region), they migrate South for winter. Common chaffinches are vagrants to Iceland and visitors to the Faroe Islands, where they have even been known to breed a few times. Males are easily recognizable, with a grey-blue head and rusty red underparts, as well as an olive green rump and a white wing patch. Females are less colorful. Both measure approximately 14.5cm in length.
- The Brambling Fringilla montifringilla. This close cousin to the common chaffinch is slightly larger, with a length of about 16cm. The sexual dismorphism is also less pronounced although the breeding male has a distinct black head and upper back. The female hase a greyish head and body. In both sexes, the breast is orange with a pale grey or white belly and white rump. The brambling breeds in the Arctic and Subarctic from Fennoscandia to eastern Siberia. Populations of coastal Norway are mostly resident, but most bramblings migrate South for winter. They are common vagrants to Iceland and the Faroe Islands, and rare vagrants to Svalbard.
- The Eurasian bullfinch Pyrrhula pyrrhula. The male of this stout and medium-sized finch (14-16cm in length) is easy to recognize with its black head, blue-grey and black wings, and bright pink underparts and breast. The female looks like the male with washed-out, pale pink and brown colors. The Eurasian bullfinch is found from western Europe to eastern Asia. In Fennoscandia, it is resident, and is present everywhere except the northernmost areas and northern mountains of Norway. According to Birding Iceland, it used to be a common vagrant to Iceland, but it is now very rare. It is a vagrant in the Faroe Iceland.
- The European greenfinch Chloris chloris. This medium-sized bird (15cm in length) is found throughout Europe, in North Africa, and western Russia. Both males and females are olive green, but the females have more brown muted tones while males have vibrant green and some yellow patches. The European Greenfinch breeds throughout most of Fennoscandia and is present all year long in coastal Norway. It is a vagrant to Iceland and the Faroe Islands.
- The Common redpoll Acanthis flammea. A 2021 study found that this species was not, in fact, genetically distinct from the Arctic redpoll Acanthis hornemanni or the Lesser redpoll Acanthis cabaret. These subspecies show slightly different colorations. and their size ranges from 11cm to 14cm. The redpolls are circumpolar, and they are found throughout Fennoscandia, around Iceland, and in coastal Greenland. They are vagrants to Svalbard and the Faroe Islands.
- The Twite Linaria flavirostris. This small finch (13-13.5cm in length) looks like a common redpoll but lacks the red crown patch. It breeds in northern Europe and in irregular patches between the middle East and Mongolia. In Fennoscandia, it breeds on the northern Norwegian coast, and it is also found in winter in the south. It is a vagrant to the Faroe Islands.
- The Parrot crossbill Loxia pytyopsittacus. Fairly large for a finch (16-18cm in length), the parrot crossbill is difficult due to its range of colorations, from orange and red most usually in males, to green, brown and yellow, most usually in females. Like other crossbills, the mandibles of the bill cross at the tip. The parrot crossbill is found in northern and northeastern Europe. In Fennoscandia, it is found in coastal and southern Norway, Sweden, and Finland, except for the northernmost areas. It is a vagrant to the Faroe Islands and Iceland.
- The Red crossbill Loxia curvirostra. Very similar to the parrot crossbill in apprearance, the red crossbill is somewhat larger (about 20cm in length). It is found accross most of Eurasia and North America with a fractured distribution, but its distribution in Fennoscandia is much the same as that of the parrot crossbill. It breeds in the Faroes Islands. In Iceland it has been breeding since the 2010's but is still rare and mostly a visitor.
- The Eurasian siskin Spinus spinus. The smallest of the common East Atlantic Arctic finches (11-12.5cm in length), this bird can be recognized by its yellow-green upper parts and black wings with yellow bars. In females, underparts are brown with stripes. In males, underparts are olive-green, and the crown is black. The Erasian siskin is present in Europe, and some parts of eastern Asia. It breeds in throughout Fennoscandia except the most northern and mountainous parts. In southern Fennoscandia, it is present all year long. It is a common visitor to Iceland and the Faroe Islands.
Arctic redpoll (left) and common redpoll (right). They can be recognized form each other only from the slightly different coloration: the Arctic redpoll is paler, with an almost white belly and less stripes.
Red crossbill (female). Males are red or orange instead of yellow or green. Note the crossing mandibles. The best way to distinguish parrot crossbills from red crossbills is their call.
As their name suggests, flycatchers (from the Muscicapidae family) are mostly insectivores that hunt while flying. Below is the list of the flycatchers
- The Spotted flycatcher Muscicapa striata. This brown, inconspicuous, small bird (about 14.5cm in length) is found throughout Europe, western Asia, and Africa. In Fennoscandia, it is migratory and goes South for winter. It is a vagrant to Iceland and the Faroe Islands.
- The European robin Erithacus rubecula. With its bright orange face and breast, this tame small passerine (12.5-14cm in length) is easy to recognize. It breeds in northern and eastern Europe, where it is migratory, wintering in North Africa, the Middle East, and around the Mediterrenean sea. It is present all year long in western and southern Europe, including the southern tip of Norway. It also breeds in the Faroe Islands, and a common visitor to Iceland
- The Bluethroat. Similar in size to the European Robin (13-14cm in length), this little bird can be found irreularly distributed from France to western Alaska. Migratory, some bluethroats breed in northern Fennoscandia and the mounatains of Norway. They are rare migrans to Iceland according to Birding Iceland, and they are also vagrants to the Faroe Islands.
- The European pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca. Like with most flycatchers, it is much easier to recognize the male of this small species (12-13.5cm in length) than the female. He has black upperparts and white underparts, which makes for striking contrast. The female is dark brown above and light brown below. It breeds from western Europe to western Russia, and throughout Fennoscandia. In winter, it migrates to equatorial Africa. The European pied flycatcher is a vagrant to Iceland that seems to be becoming more common, and it may breed in the Faroe Islands.
- The Common redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus. This flycatcher is the same size as a robin, but with a slimmer build. The female is brown, but the male is a distinctive ash grey with white forehead, black face, and orange underparts. Its distribution is similar to that of the European pied flycatcher, and like the former it is a regular vagrant to Iceland. It may also breed in the Faroe Islands.
- The Whinchat Saxicola rubetra. Of average size for a flycatcher (12-14cm in length), this small bird exhibits "scaled" brown wing feathers in both males and females. Males have a white eyebrow stripe (which is light brown on the female), and they have white underparts fading to pale orange towards the breast.
- The Northern wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe. Large for a flycatcher (14.5-16cm in length), this species is entirely migratory and circumpolar. In the East Atlantic Arctic, it is found breeding in coastal Greenland except the North, all throughout Fennoscandia, Iceland, and the Faroe Islands. In Svalbard, it is mostly a visitor but few pairs also breed.
As their name suggests, leaf warblers are passerines that live in forests. These small birds forage for food (mostly insects) in the trees, and they are entirely migartory. They belong to the Phylloscopidae family. Here are the leaf warblers commonly breeding in the East Atlantic Arctic.
- The Arctic warbler Phylloscopus borealis. This warbler (11-13cm in length) breeds from High Arctic Norway to western Alaska, and all throughout Siberia. It is a rare vagrant to Iceland and the Faroe Islands. The Arctic warbler migrates to South-East Asia.
- The Willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus. This warbler (11-12.5cm in length) breeds from northwestern Europe to eastern Siberia. It is found throughout Fennoscandia, and migrates to Africa for winter. It is a common vagrant to Iceland and the Faroe Islands.
- The Common chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita. This warbler (10-12cm in length) breeds from western France to Siberia. It winters in southern Europe, southwestern Asia, and northern Africa. It is present through most of Fennoscandia, except the northernmost areas and mountainous areas of Norway. They are common vagrants to Iceland and the Faroe Islands, where one pair has been known to attempt breeding.
Old world buntings are small sturdy seed-eaters with short and conica beaks. As their name suggests, they are only found in Afro-Eurasia ("the Old-world"). The belong to the Emberizidae family. Here are the Afro-Eurasian buntings commonly breeding in the East Atlantic Arctic.
- The Common reed bunting Emberiza schoeniclus. It is found through most of Eurasia, including throughout Fennoscandia where it breeds, and is migartory. Some individuals in southern Sweden and Norway stay there all year long. It is a rare vagrant to Iceland. The common reed bunting is fairly small for a bunting, about 13.5 to 15.5cm in length.
- The Little bunting Emberiza pusilla. This entirely migratory species breeds from northern Fennoscandia to eastern Siberia. It winters in southeastern Asia. Little buntings are the smallest of the East Atlantic Arctic buntings, with lengths of 12cm to 14cm. They are vagrants to Iceland and the Faroe Islands.
- The Yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella. This bright yellow bunting (16-16.5cm in length) is found from western Europe all the way to Mongolia. It is largely resident, including in Fennoscandia except in the Norh where it is migratory. It is absent from the most mountainous regions of Fennoscandia. It is a rare vagrant to Iceland and the Faroe Islands.
Swallows, which belong to the Hirundinidae, are birds that mostly feed on insects which they hunt while in the air. There are three species of swallows which commonly breed in the East Atlantic Arctic.
- The Barn swallow Hirundo rustica, which breeds throughout most of the Northern Hemisphere and migrate to the Southern Hemisphere. It present throughout most of Fennoscandia in summer, and is a common vagrant to Iceland, Svalbard, southern Greenland and the Faroe Islands. It is fairly long for a swallow (17-19cm long) becuase of its elongated tail feathers.
- The Common house martin Delichon urbicum. This species breeds throughout Europe as well as some parts of western Asia. It winters in Africa. Common house martins are vagrants to Iceland, and have attempted breeding in the Faroe Islands and Iceland. It is about the same size as the sand martin (about 13cm in length).
- The Sand martin Riparia riparia. Also know as the bank swallow, this species is wedely distributed throughout the North Hemisphere. It winters in South America, Africa, and South Asia. It breeds throughout Fennoscandia, and is a rare vagrant to Iceland. The sand martin is medium-sized (between 12-14cm in length).
Thrushes are sturdy and pround medium-sized birds that can be found all over the world except the Antarctic. In the East Atlantic Arctic, the following species are found.
- The Redwing Turdus iliacus. Redwings breed from Iceland to Siberia, and migrate South in winter. They have been breeding in southern Greenland since the 1990's, and are common visitors to the Faroe Islands where they irregularely breed. They have also attempted breeding in Svalbard, where they are fairly common vagrants. Redwings are fairly small-sized for thrushes (20-24cm).
- The Common blackbird Turdus merula. With its rich song and black or dark brown plumage, this large thrush (23.5-29cm in length) is easy to identify. It is native from Europe, North Africa, and the Middle-East, but has also been introduced to Australia and New-Zealand. The common blackbird started breeding in Iceland in 1969, and it is a fairly common breeder there, with some part of the population being resident. It is an annual vagrant to Svalbard.
- The Fieldfare Turdus pilaris. The Fieldfare is a large thrush with a length of about 25cm. It breeds from eastern France to Siberia, and throughout Fennoscandia where it is migratory. It is has also become a common visitor to Iceland, and it is a vagrant to Greenland and the Faroe Islands.
- The Song thrush Turdus philomelos. This thrush is close in size to the redwing (20-23.5cm in length) and is also very similar to it in plumage, although it lacks a red patch under the wing. It breeds from Spain to western Asia including Fennoscandia where it is migratory. It is a vagrant to Iceland, the Faroe Islands, and Svalbard.
- The Ring ouzel Turdus torquatus. This medium-sized thrush ia easy to recognize, with the male being black with a white throat and grey "scales" on the underparts, and the female being similar with more muted colors. There are three subspecies of ring ouzel, and the nominate species Turdus torquatus torquatus breeds in northern Fennoscandia and some parts of the UK, migrating around the Mediterranean. The ring ouzel is a vagrant to the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Svalbard.
Tits are small woodland birds from the Paridae family that usually do not migrate. There are three species of tits that are commonly found in the East Atlantic Arctic.
- The Willow tit Poecile montanus. This small and compact tit (around 11.5cm in length) is entirely resident and is found from France to Japan, including throughout Fennoscandia.
- The Grey-headed chickadee Poecile cinctus. This Arctic species, which large for a tit (13.5-14cm in length), is found from northern Fennoscandia to Alaska and all throughout Siberia.
- The Eurasian blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus. This tit is about the same size as the willow tit (12cm in length), but its plumage makes it very easy to identify. It is found in Europe, and in Fennoscandia it is present on the southern and western Fennoscandian coasts. It is a very rare vagrant to the Faroe Islands.
The Old-world warblers from the Sylviidae family are warblers that are found in woods around Afro-Eurasia. Three species are found in the East Atlantic Arctic.
- The Garden warbler Sylvia borin. This small brown bird (around 14cm in length) is difficult to identify. It breeds in northern Europe and western Asia, inlcuding Fennoscandia except the most mountainous areas, before migrating South for winter. It is a common vagrant to Iceland and the Faroe Islands.
- The Eurasian blackcap Sylvia atricapilla. Like most old-world warblers, this bird is small with a length of about 13cm. It mostly breeds in Europe, and migrates to Africa. In the East Atlantic Arctic, it is found in southern coastal Fennoscandia. It is a rare vagrant to Iceland, but it is more usual in the Faroe Islands where breeding has been recorded.
- The Common whitethroat Curruca communis. This small brown bird (about 14cm in length) is entirely migratory, breeding in Europe and western Asia including coastal southern Fennoscandia. It migrates to Africa, and is a vagrant to the Faroe Islands and Iceland.
- The Lesser whitethroat Curruca curruca. This warbler is similar in color to the common whitethroat, but it is slightly greyer and smaller (about 13cm in length). It is found in a large area in western Eurasia, and migrates to Africa and southwestern Asia. It breeds throughout Fennoscandia, and is a vagrant to Iceland and the Faroe Islands.
Motacillidae is a family that includes longclaws, wagtails, and pipits. These birds are usually insect eaters, and have long or medium-long tails. Wagtails are recognizable by their characteristic wagging tail, where the tail "pumps" up and down. This is quite a common family in the East Atlantic Arctic, with seven common species-
- The Grey wagtail Motacilla cinerea. This medium-sized wagtail (18-19cm in length) has yellow underparts on dark grey upperparts with grey-pink legs. It is found with irregular distribution from western Europe to Japan, and is largely migratory. It breeds in irregular and disconnected patches in Fennoscandia, including some parts of northern Norway. It is a rare visitor to the Faroe Islands, and uncommon in Iceland where at least one individual has been found wintering.
- The Western yellow wagtail Motacilla flava. It is just a little smaller (15-16cm in length) than the grey wagtail and the color is similar. Thus, the yellow wagtail can be recognized by it black legs and olive-greeen to yellow upper back. In northern Fennoscandia, it also has a solid grey head. It breeds in Europe including throughout Fennoscandia, and western Siberia. In the winter, it migrates to Africa.
- The White wagtail Motacilla alba. This black, grey and white wagtail (16.5-19cm in length) is found all over Eurasia, as well as northern Africa in winter. It breeds in Iceland and northern Fennoscandia, where it is migratory. It is also a scarce breeder in the Faroe Islands and eastern Greenland, and it is an annual visitor to Svalbard.
- The Meadow pipit Anthus pratensis. This pipit is quite small (14.5-15cm in length). It is found from eastern Greenland to western Asia, and Africa in winter. In the northern regions of its range, it is migratory, including eastern Greenland, Fennoscandia, Iceland, and the Faroe Islands. It is a sparsely breeding bird in Svalbard.
- The Red-throated pipit Anthus cervinus. Recognizable to its red throat during the breeding season, this small (about 15cm in length) pipit's breeding range extends from northern Fennoscandia to western Alaska, almost exclusively in the Arctic. It migrates to Africa and South-East Asia.
- The Rock pipit Anthus petrosus. Larger than the other pipits in the East Atlantic Arctic (16.5-17cm in length), this pipit also has a slightly yellow-olive coloration which makes it easier to recognize. It is a coastal bird, and it is found from the Moroccan coast in winter to northern Fennoscandia in summer. It is migratory except for northern France, the Faroe Islands, and most of Great Britain, where it is resident. Rock pipits are vagrants to Iceland where they have been known to breed. They are also vagrants to Svalbard and Greenland.
- The Tree pipit Anthus trivialis. This pipit resembles the meadow pipit in coloration, and it is slightly the same size (about 15cm in length). Entirely migratory, it is found from western Europe to western Asia and most of Africa. It breeds throughout Fennoscandia. It is a rare vagrant to Iceland and the Faroe Islands.
- "White-throated Dipper (Cinclus cinclus)" by gilgit2 is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0
- "White-throated Dipper" by rene j is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
- "Goldcrest 'Regulus regulus' (1 of 2) 26.01.2013" by Cliff Watkinson is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0
- "Schwanzmeise (Aegithalos caudatus caudatus) im Parks Range Gelände in Berlin-Lichterfelde" by Membeth is licensed under CC0
- "Great grey shrike" by Nicholls of the Yard is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0
- "Common house sparrow" by kahunapulej is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
- "Common starling" by hedera.baltica is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0
- "Bohemian Waxwing" by Sergey Yeliseev is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
- "Horned Lark" by DaveInman is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
- "歐亞雲雀-稀有冬過境/ヒバリ/ Eurasian Skylark" by Hiyashi Haka is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
- "Eurasian treecreeper // Certhia familiaris" by Jevgenijs Slihto is licensed under CC BY 2.0
- "Lapland Longspur" by DaveInman is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
- "File:Snow Bunting in Wisconsin 02.jpg" by Lorie Shaull is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0
- "File:Winterkoninkje - Eurasian wren (17912072163).jpg" by Arend from Oosterhout, Netherlands is licensed under CC BY 2.0
- "Common Raven" by K Schneider is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0
- "Eurasian Magpie" by naturalengland is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
- "Siberian Jay" by rene j is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
- "Hoary Redpoll & Common Redpoll" by dfaulder is licensed under CC BY 2.0
- "Pine Grosbeak (Pinicola enucleator)" by sussexbirder is licensed under CC BY 2.0
- "European robin" by Cloudtail the Snow Leopard is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
- "Male Bluethroat" by Collieston Birder is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
- "File:Steinschmaetzer Northern wheatear male.jpg" by Andreas Trepte is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.5
- "Arctic Warbler - Alaska" by ZakPohlen is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
- "Willow Warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus)" by Ian N. White is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
- "Common Chiffchaff (Phylloscopus collybita)" by gilgit2 is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0
- "Common Reed Bunting Emberiza s. schoeniclus" by nik.borrow is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0
- "Yellowhammer" by spwhite1 is licensed under CC BY-ND 2.0
- "Little Bunting (Emberiza pusilla)" by gilgit2 is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0
- "Singing Sedge Warbler" by ColonelQComber is licensed under CC BY-ND 2.0
- "Icterine warbler" by hedera.baltica is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0
- "Barn Swallow" by Craig Adam Photography is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
- "Sand Martin" by Mike Prince is licensed under CC BY 2.0
- "Redwing" by paulf_nikon is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0
- "Common blackbird" by Kamil Porembiński is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0
- "Garden Fieldfare" by colinjackson1972 is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0
- "Willow tit" by irio.jyske is licensed under CC BY 2.0
- "Grey-headed Chickadee (Poecile cinctus)" by sussexbirder is licensed under CC BY 2.0
- "File:Blaumeise - Eurasian blue tit (31557470364).jpg" by Rolf Dietrich Brecher from Germany is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0
- "Garden Warbler (Sylvia borin)" by Billy Lindblom is licensed under CC BY 2.0
- "Eurasian Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla)" by Jan Thomas Landgren is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
- "File:Flickr - Rainbirder - Common Whitethroat (Sylvia communis).jpg" by Steve Garvie from Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0
- “Eurasian rock pipit” by Andreas Trepte is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.5´
- "Meadow Pipit" by Wild Chroma is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
- "White wagtail // Motacilla alba" by Jevgenijs Slihto is licensed under CC BY 2.0
- "Common Raven (Corvus corax)" by Gregory 'Slobirdr' Smith is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0
- "Bruants des neiges - Snow buntings" by Gattou - Lucie Provencher is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0
- "European Starling" by Becky Matsubara is licensed under CC BY 2.0
- All About Bird, Cornell Lab of Ornithology
- Bengtson, Sven-Axel, Eliasen, K., Jacobsen, L. M., & Magnussen, E. (2010). Man-dependence of House Sparrows in the Faroe Islands Man-dependence of House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) in the Faroe Islands: habitat patch characteristics as determinants of presence and numbers. In S-A. Bengtson, P. Buckland, P. H. Enckell, & A. M. Fosaa (Eds.), Annales Societatis Scientiarum Faeroensis (pp. 227–243). Faroe University Press.
- Birding Svalbard. (2021). Norwegian Ornithological Society. http://www.svalbardbirds.com/index.html
- BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/01/2022.
- Boarman, William I.; Heinrich, Bernd (1999). Poole, A.; Gill, F. (eds.). "Common Raven (Corvus corax)". Birds of North America. 476: 1–32. doi:10.2173/bna.476
- BTO BirdFacts (2021). British Trust for Ornithology.
- Byers, C., Olsson, U., & Curson, J. (1995). Buntings and Sparrows. Pica Press ISBN 1-873403-19-4.
- Cramp S. (1988). Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. Vol. 5. Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-857508-5.
- eBird (2021). Retrieved from https://ebird.org/home.
- Eurasian Blue Tit. (2015). Birds of the Faroe Islands. http://fuglar.info/wordpress/?p=249&lang=en
- Feare, Chris; Craig, Adrian (1998). Starlings and Mynas. London: Christopher Helm. ISBN 0-7136-3961-X.
- Funk, E.R., Mason, N.A., Pálsson, S. et al. A supergene underlies linked variation in color and morphology in a Holarctic songbird. Nat Commun 12, 6833 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-27173-z
- Hammer, S., Madsen, J. J., Jensen, J.-K., Pedersen, K. T., Bloch, D., & Thorup, K. (2014). The Faroese Bird Migration Atlas. Fróðskapur - Faroe University Press.
- Goldcrest. http://www.birdmigrationatlas.dk/uk/species/goldcrest
- Great grey shrike. http://www.birdmigrationatlas.dk/uk/species/great-grey-shrike
- Chaffinch. http://www.birdmigrationatlas.dk/uk/species/chaffinch
- Harrap, S. and Quinn, D. (1996) Helm Identification Guides: Tits, Nuthatches & Treecreepers. Helm Identification Guides.1 ed. London, Christopher Helm (A&C Black). ISBN 0-7136-3964-4.
- Harris, Tony & Franklin, Kim (2000): Shrikes & bush-shrikes: including wood-shrikes, helmet-shrikes, flycatcher-shrikes, philentomas, batises and wattle-eyes. Christopher Helm, London. ISBN 0-7136-3861-3
- del Hoyo, J. (1992-2011). Handbook of the Birds of the World (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, & J. Sargatal). Lynx Edicions.
- Mullarney, Killian; Svensson, Lars; Zetterstrom, Dan; Grant, Peter J. (1999). Collins Bird Guide. London: Collins. p. 336. ISBN 978-0-00-219728-1.
- Olofson, S. (2012). Birds of the Faroe Islands. Visit Faroe Islands. www.visitfaroeislands.com.
- Olofson, S. (2017). The Parrot Crossbill invasion. Birding Faroes. https://birdingfaroes.wordpress.com/2017/10/29/the-parrot-crossbill-invasion/
- Óskarsson, Örn. Birds in Iceland (2021). ORNOSK. Retrieved from https://ornosk.com/.
- Pétursson, G., & Kolbeinsson, Y. , Birding Iceland
- Robinson, R. A. "Sedge Warbler". BirdFacts. British Trust for Ornithology.
- Skarphéðinsson, K. H. (2018). Krossnefur [Red Crossbill] Loxia curvirostra. Icelandic Institute of Natural History. https://en.ni.is/biota/animalia/chordata/aves/passeriformes/loxia-curvirostra
- Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M., eds. (1998). The Birds of the Western Palearctic. 2 Passerines (Concise ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 1457–1460. ISBN 978-0-19-850188-6.
- Summers-Smith, J. Denis (1988). The Sparrows. illustrated by Robert Gillmor. Calton, Staffs, England: T. & A. D. Poyser. ISBN 978-0-85661-048-6.
- Svensson, Lars; Mullarney, Killian; Zetterstrom, Dab (2009). Collins Bird Guide (2nd ed.). HarperCollins
- Vaughan, R. (1988). Birds of the Thule District, Northwest Greenland. Arctic, 41(1), 53–58. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40510663
- White-throated dipper (2021). The Cornell Lab of Ornithology. https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/species/whtdip1/cur/introduction.