The following is a near complete list of native land herbivores found in the East Atlantic Arctic, as well as examples of introduced, invasive, or human-dependent land mammals of the East Atlantic Arctic. Herbivores are animals for which the great majority of their diets is composed of plants (berries, nuts, grass, grain, leaves, etc). They are usually prey for other animals, such as mammalian carnivores, reptiles, or birds of prey. They are classified here by order and family, which are genetic groups that highlight a common ancestor. Family describes a closer genetic closeness than order.
HB: Head and body length
T: Tail length
SH: Shoulder height
HB: Head and body length
T: Tail length
SH: Shoulder height
Ruminantia is the order of ruminants (animals that need to ferment grass in a specialized stomach), which includes cows, pigs, giraffes, deer, and more. Two families of ruminants are present in the East Atlantic Arctic.
The cervidae family is a family of ruminants that includes all deer species. Male deer of most species (as well as female reindeer) grow and shed antlers. There are two deer species in the East Atlantic Arctic.
The Muskox Ovibos moschatus is a member of the bovidae family, like cows and bison. It is native to Alaska, northern Canada and Greenland. It was reintroduced to areas where it had become extinct in Alaska and western Greenland. It was also introduced to small areas in central Norway, Svalbard (where they are now extinct), and some parts of Siberia. Size: HB: 180-250cm, T: 10-12cm, SH: 90-160cm, W: 220-600kg.
Lagomorpha is the order of pikas, hares and rabbits. East Atlantic Arctic lagomorphs are hares, meaning they are part of the Leporidae family, They include:
- The Arctic hare Lepus arcticus. The arctic hare is found in northern Canada and coastal Greenland. In the south of its range, it is brownish-grey in summer and white in winter. In the north of its range, it stays white all. The ears are tipped with black. Size: HB: 40-60cm, W: 2.5-6.5kg.
- The Mountain hare Lepus timidus. The mountain hare is native to northern Europe and northern Asia, and it is found throughout Fennoscandia. It was introduced to Iceland and Svalbard in the 20th century, but it has failed to establish a viable population in both areas where it is now absent. Size: HB: 45-61cm, W: 2.0-5.8kg.
Rodentia is the order of rodents. It contains, for example, mice, porcupines, and guinea pigs. The East Atlantic Arctic rodents include 15 species distributed in three families.
Sciuridae is the squirrel family. Its only member that is common in the East Atlantic Arctic is the Red squirrel Sciurus vulgaris. This well-known arboreal rodent is found from western Europe to eastern Siberia including throughout Fennoscandia, but only in forested areas. Size: HB: 18-24cm, T: 17-18cm, W: 100-350g.
Cricetidae is the family of rodents that includes voles, hamsters, lemmings, and their larger cousins the muskrats. It is the family of mammals that counts the most species in the East Atlantic Arctic, but these species are often very small, difficult to observe, and not studied extensively. In total, there are seven vole species in the East Atlantic Arctic, and three lemming species. The most visible difference between voles and lemmings is the tail, which is almost absent in lemmings.
- The East European vole Microtus levis (also known as the Sibling vole) is a small vole found mainly in Eastern Europe, from southern Finland to western Russia. It was introduced to Svalbard by accident between the 1920's and 1960's. It is the only small mammal found on the island today, with a small population that is limited geographically and completely dependent on human settlements. Size: HB: 7-11.5cm, T: 3-4.5cm, W: 25-50g.
- The Tundra vole or Root vole Microtus oeconomus is medium-sized vole which is found from northwestern Canada through Siberia and to eastern Fennoscandia. Size: HB: 8.5-16cm, T: 2.5-8cm, W: 25-65g.
- The Short-tailed field vole Microtus agrestis is a small vole found only in Eurasia, from western Europe to central Russia. It is present throughout Scandinavia. Size: HB: 9-11cm, T: 2-5cm, W: 20-40g.
- The European water vole Arvicola amphibius is a semi-aquatic vole, and it is much bigger than other European voles. It is found in most of Europe and western Asia, including Sweden, Finland, and most of Norway. The tail is furrier than a rat's. Size: HB: 14-22cm, T: 9-14cm, W: 150-300g.
- The Northern red-backed vole or Ruddy vole Myodes rutilus is a small rodent is found in Siberia, northern continental Europe, and North America excluding Greenland. The upper-parts are are rusty-colored with golden-brown flanks. SIze: HB: 8-11cm, T: 2.5-3.5cm, W: 15-40g.
- The Grey-sided vole or Grey red-backed vole Myodes rufocanus looks similar to the northern red-backed vole, but it is slightly bigger, with grey-sided flanks instead of rusty colored. It is found from northern Fennoscandia to eastern Russia. SIze: HB: 11-13.5cm, T: 2.5-4cm, W: 15-50g.
- The Bank vole Myodes glareolus is a small vole that is found from western Europe to central Russia. It is present in Fennoscandia except for the northern coast. The hair is reddish-brown. Size: HB: 8-12cm, T: 3.3-4.8cm, W: 14-40g.
- The Norway lemming Lemmus lemmus is a colorful lemming with orange, black, and buff fur patterns. It is endemic to Fennoscandia including Norway, western Sweden, northern Finland, and the Russian Kola peninsula. Size: HB: up to 15.5cm, T: 1-2cm, W: up to 130g.
- The Northern collared lemming Dicrostonyx groenlandicus. This lemming is found only in the high Arctic of North America, including northern Canada and Alaska as well as northern and eastern Greenland. It is much heavier than normal in winter, with weights up to 110 grams. Size: HB: 10-16cm, T: 1-2cm, W: 35-55g.
- The Wood lemming Myopus schisticolor is a is a small grey lemming with paler underparts. It is found from inland and northern Fennoscandia to eastern Russia Size: HB: 8-11.5cm, T: 1-2cm, W: 20-45g.
Muridae is the rodent family of mice and rats. The three species that are present in the East Atlantic Arctic were introduced to this area with permanent human settlements, and their survival is dependent on those settlements.
- The House mouse Mus musculus. This mouse is native to continental Europe and Asia, and are dependent on human buildings and habitations in the Arctic including northern Fennoscandia. In northern regions, they have been introduced to Canada, Alaska, Iceland, and the Faroe Islands. Size: HB: 6-10cm, T: 6-10cm, W: 10-22g.
- The Wood mouse Apodemus sylviaticus. This small mouse can be confused with the house mouse. However, the eyes and ears are bigger with a redder coat and a longer nose. It is endemic to Europe and the northern coast of Africa. It is found in southern Norway and Sweden, and around Iceland where it was introduced during human settlement. Size: HB: 6.1-10.3cm, T: 7.1-9.5cm, W: 13-27g.
- The Brown rat Rattus norvegicus has a similar morphology to a mouse but is much larger in size with weights up to ten times heavier. It is found worldwide except for Antarctica, some islands including Iceland and Greenland, and the High Arctic. It is found throughout Fennoscandia where it is dependent on human settlements, especially in the North. It has also been present in the Faroe Islands since the 18th century. Size: HB: 21-29cm, T: 17-23cm, W: 200-400g.
- "File:Lepus arcticus 001100820 IMG 6991.jpg" by Michael Haferkamp is marked with CC BY-SA 2.0.
- "Frosty moose" by frostnip907 is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
- "Reindeer" by timo_w2s is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0
- "Golden Light Muskox" by Bering Land Bridge National Preserve is licensed under CC BY 2.0
- "Wild-Arctic-Hare-2" by Roberto Marchegiani is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
- "Mountain Hare" by Sergey Yeliseev is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
- "Mountain Hare" by DazaT is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
- "Écureuil roux -- Red Squirrel" by Gilles Gonthier is marked with CC BY 2.0.
- "File:Bank Vole Myodes glareolus Grand Union Canal 1.jpg" by AnemoneProjectors (talk) (Flickr) is marked with CC BY-SA 2.0.
- "VOLE, TUNDRA (microtus oeconomus) (9-4-08) gambell, ak -2" by Sloalan is marked with CC0 1.0.
- "Microtus levis on the palm of the hand near Popasna, Luhansk Oblast, Ukraine." by teteria sonnna is licensed under CC BY 2.0.
- "File:Lemmuslemmus.jpg" by johsgrd is marked with CC BY-SA 2.0.
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- "House Mouse" by Will_wildlife is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0
- "Rattus norvegicus" by sasastro is marked with CC BY 2.0.
- "Returning Reindeer" by Tom Olliver is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0
- "Muskox In Alaska (1978)" by USFWSAlaska is marked with CC BY-NC-ND 2.0.
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